The term “affirmative action” was first introduced by President Kennedy in 1961 as a method of remedying discrimination that had persisted in spite of constitutional guarantees. In 1964, President Johnson addressed and enforced the issue. He stated: “This is the next and more profound stage of the battle for civil rights. We seek not just equality as a right and a theory, but equality as a fact and as a result.” Focusing in particular on education and jobs, affirmative action policies require that active measures be taken to ensure that minorities enjoyed the same opportunities for promotions, salary increases, career advancement, school admissions, scholarships, and financial aid. Affirmative action is intended to promote equal opportunity.